Waste Management is currently of particular importance in the world. The range of drugs used is constantly increasing, as well as the amount and severity of waste generated by the activities of medical institutions. In this regard, there is an increasing risk of contamination. In the past half-century, this complex problem has undergone the period of qualitative changes, which can be divided into three main stages.
In the first stage, which lasted until the mid 60s, medical waste, in fact, have the same status as municipal solid waste (MSW). However, a special investigation, which was conducted at this period, showed that the average composition of the “hospital waste” varied seriously from the “household waste” and contained a great deal of microorganisms. The average daily portion of accumulated medical waste was 1 – 5 kg per person with the proportion of biohazard waste at the level of 5 – 25% (depending on the hospital.) It was discovered that a number of viral infection pathogens, such as tuberculosis and anthrax, could be conserved in a viable state for weeks and even months. The evidences received showed the specific nature of medical waste and initiated the transition to a new phase of their management.
The second phase, which lasted until mid-90s, was characterized by a gradual improvement of methods of medical waste disposal with simultaneous complication of the overall situation. There was noted the beginning of the incinerators construction intended to deal with the threat of contamination. At this stage the composition of medical waste were divided into three categories.
The first category includes wastes that do not pose an immediate personnel threat: the remains of food, bedding, personal belongings of the patients, the remains of plaster, aerosol medications. They demanded the implementation of precautionary measures during handling and transportation and were utilized in the same manner as municipal solid waste.
The second category comprised infectious hazardous waste of surgical wards, blood transfusion stations, and morgues. After disinfection, these types of medical wastes were sealed in disposable containers properly labeled and then burned.
The third category includes wastes that represent a toxicological hazard. Their toxicity is due to the presence of components such as radioisotopes, mercury, heavy metals, and chlorine. They were usually neutralized by special methods or needed special treatment.
If you are about to write a research paper on medical waste management, you need thoroughly examine the theory of medical waste disposal and utilization. Your paper has to comprise the description and explanation all the important stages of hazardous wastes neutralization and utilization. To have the ideas on preparing this challenging research, we recommend you to read a couple of free sample research proposals on different medical waste management topics, which are in quantity on the Web.
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