Scientific and Industrial Revolution Essay Example:
The modern society has reached the unparalleled level of the development. In fact, within the last few centuries, the mankind has made the greater progressed than it has ever made before. At the same time, the current high level of the development of the modern society is basically determined by the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions that had occurred since the 16th century and defined the further development of social life, technologies, economy, science, and philosophy. This is why it is extremely important to analyze the factors that contributed to the Scientific and Industrial Revolutions and find out the major consequences of these revolutions.
First of all, it should be said that the effects of the Industrial Revolution are particularly evident in the modern socio-economic relations, which are capitalist by nature. This Revolution started in the 18th century played a significant role in the further development of Britain and than Europe and the entire Western civilization and the world at large. In fact, the Industrial revolution is a set of radical socio-economic changes that is characterized by changes in technologies, social, economic and even political sphere. One of examples of industrial revolutions, is the one that took place in England in the 18th century, when extensive mechanization of production resulted in a shift from home-based hand manufacturing to large-scale factory production. As a result of a rapid technological progress the economic growth resulted in a great leap in socio-economic domain.
In actuality it means that a technological shift had a far going social effects. In fact the whole society has been changed. Since the industrial revolution the economy of England, for instance, has become more and more industry focused. As a result the population has started to migrate from agricultural areas to cities that led to the growth of the share of urban population.
Furthermore, people, being employed in factories’ manufactures tend to change their tools for modern machinery that extremely increased the productivity and consequently the income of the owners of factories and machineries. This is why it was possible to speak about the formation of a new class of bourgeoisie that eventually replaced nobility.
Later on, the society and socio-economic relations progressed and the implementation of new technologies was permanently associated with wealth and better perspectives. Naturally new technologies were impossible without development of science as a result education has become a very important factor influencing technological and consequently social progress of the society and in the following centuries it became clear that knowledge, information and technology, playing a key role in the socio-economic progress, defined the social structure of the human society.
It should be said that technological changes are a moving force that leads to social transformations in terms of the Industrial Revolution. For instance, the Industrial Revolution in England in the 18th century resulted in great social changes that would be impossible under any other conditions. It means that without the Industrial Revolution England would probably remain an agricultural country with low urban population and insignificant share of industrial production in the national GDP.
Furthermore, technological changes are the material basis for social changes since, again returning to England of the 18th century, a rapid growth of urban population in this country would obviously result in starvation and not in development of manufactures and factories if there was no technological basis for urbanization of the country, i.e. factories manufacturing different products that could be eventually exported and sufficient food supplies could be provided through importing food, for instance.
In such a way, it is possible to estimate that technological changes come first and are followed by social changes. At the same time, the rapid and radical technological changes which apparently played the key role in the Industrial role were possible only due to the Scientific Revolution which started even earlier than the Industrial Revolution. It should be pointed out that traditionally, the beginning of the Scientific Revolution dates back to the 16th century and is associated with the name of Nicholaus Copernicus, the scientist that revealed the fact of the revolutions of the heavenly spheres and developed the heliocentric views, which gradually replaced the medieval views on the Earth as the center of the Universe. Obviously, these scientific findings, which were later followed by works of other outstanding scientists and the general and rapid progress of science, created the essential scientific basis for the technological breakthrough that had been taking place during the Industrial Revolution.
The major factors that contributed to the rise of the Scientific Revolution were the new scientific findings and inventions, namely the progress of optics and creation of first telescopes. Furthermore, the great geographical discoveries made in the late 15th century became the empirical basis for the development of new scientific view on the world which was based on real, scientific facts, instead of traditional religious stereotypes. Also, it should be said that the transformation of human views on the surrounding world, which became more realistic and anthropocentric, contributed considerably to the scientific progress stimulating the scientific research of the surrounding world.
In the result of the Scientific Revolution, people had got new technologies and more opportunities to improve their tools of labor and technologies of production that, in the 18th century resulted in the Industrial Revolution due to the mechanization of the production which gradually replaced the manual labor. Moreover, the Scientific Revolution totally changed the perception of the surrounding world by people. For instance, people realized that they constitute only a small part of the Universe but not its center, or else, they changed their views on themselves as independent individuals that possess free will and their life is not obligatory determined by the will of some deity.
Thus, it is possible to conclude that the Scientific and Industrial Revolution produced a profound impact on the development of human society and contributed considerably to the rapid progress of technologies and new socio-economic relations which defined the life of the modern society.
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