Bacteria Research Paper:
Bacteria are one of the major groups of microorganisms. By the late 1970s, the word “bacteria” was synonymous with prokaryotes, but in 1977, on the basis of molecular phylogenetics, prokaryotes were divided into kingdoms of Archeobacteria and Eubacteria.
Then, to emphasize the differences between them, they were renamed into the domains of Archaea and Bacteria, respectively. Science that studies bacteria is bacteriology, microbiology department.
Bacteria are microscopic, predominantly unicellular, organisms that are characterized by the presence of the cell wall, cytoplasm, and various inclusions, lack of nucleus, mitochondria, plastids, and other organelles. They usually have cell walls like fungal and plant cells, however, cell walls of bacterial are usually built of peptidoglycan. Most are very small, as a rule about 0,5-5,0 ?m in its largest size, but there are exceptions, such as Epulopiscium fishelsoni and Thiomargarita namibiensis, which can grow up to 0.5 mm on its long side and is visible to the naked eye. Some bacteria (e.g., Mycoplasma) are so small that they can pass through bacterial filters.
Bacteria are the most common group of organisms. They are present in soil, water, air, and as symbionts in other organisms. For example, a gram of soil contains about 40 million bacterial cells and there are about 5 × 1030 bacteria in the world. Bacteria (possibly together with archaea) are more than half of Earth’s biomass, including half of the organic carbon and more than 90% of organic phosphorus and nitrogen. Planktonic bacteria are accountable for 50% to 90% (according to different estimates) production of the world of oxygen. The human body normally contains 10 times more bacteria than human cells, most of these bacteria are on the skin and in the digestive tract. Many of them are pathogens that cause diseases. In general, bacteria are critical for the existence of all terrestrial ecosystems, they are indispensable in many steps of circulation of substances in nature, such as the processing of residues of higher organisms and fixation of atmospheric nitrogen.
Students, who write their research proposals, must also emphasize the fact that according to the South Korean Office of Consumer Protection, the number of bacteria on the handle (without antibacterial coating) of a great shopping carts reaches 1100 colonies per 10 cm ².
Second place is occupied by computer “mouse” in an internet cafe (690 colonies in the same area). Handles of public latrines booths contain only 340 colonies of harmful microorganisms. In order to guard all kinds of microorganisms that are found on objects of public use, it is enough to wash your hands regularly with soap and water.
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