(sugars, saccharides) are organic compounds containing a carbonyl group, and a plurality of hydroxyl groups. The name of a class of compounds derived from the words “hydrates of carbon,” it was first suggested by K. Schmidt in 1844. The appearance of this name is due to the fact that the first known to science were described carbohydrates gross formula Cx (H2O) y, formally being carbon compounds and water.
Carbohydrates are an essential component of cells and tissues of all living organisms, the flora and fauna, making up (by mass) of the bulk of the organic matter on Earth. The source of carbohydrates for all living organisms is the process of photosynthesis carried out by plants.
Carbohydrates is a very large class of organic compounds, some of them are substances with very different properties. This allows the carbohydrates to perform a variety of functions in living organisms. Compounds of this class make up about 80 % of the dry weight of plants and 2-3 % by weight of the animals.
All carbohydrates are made up of individual “units,” which are sugars. By the ability to hydrolyze into monomers, carbohydrates fall into two groups, ethers and esters.
Carbohydrates containing one unit called monosaccharides, two units – disaccharides, from two to ten units – oligosaccharides, and more than ten – polysaccharides. Monosaccharides quickly raise blood sugar, and have a high glycemic index, so they are called fast carbohydrates. They are readily soluble in water and are synthesized in green plants.
Carbohydrates are composed of three or more units are called complex. Foods rich in carbohydrates slowly and gradually increase the level of glucose and have a low glycemic index, so they are called slow carbohydrates. Complex carbohydrates are polycondensation products of simple sugars (monosaccharides), and unlike the simple, in the hydrolytic cleavage, they can decompose into monomers to produce hundreds of thousands of molecules of monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos – only, sacchar – sugar) are simple carbohydrates, which cannot be hydrolyzed into simpler carbohydrates. These solid transparent organic compounds are usually colorless, easily soluble in water, harder soluble in alcohol and quite insoluble in ether. It is one of the major groups of carbohydrates and the simplest form of sugar. Aqueous solutions are neutral pH. Some monosaccharides have a sweet taste.
Monosaccharides contain a carbonyl (aldehyde or ketone) group, and can therefore be regarded as derivatives of polyhydric alcohols. Monosaccharide, with a carbonyl group at the chain end, is called aldose and aldehyde. When the carbonyl group is at any other position of chain, the monosaccharide is a ketone, which is called ketose. Depending on the length of the carbon chain (from three to ten atoms) triose, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, heptoses, and so forth are distinguished. Among them, poluchilipentozy and hexose are the most widespread in nature. Monosaccharides are the building blocks for synthesis of disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. All this data you can find in free sample research paper topics on carbohydrates.
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