Mobile communication is a method of communication where the peers are connected without using cable, but via a radio channel. The key feature of the method is that the general zone of coverage is divided in cells, determined by the zones of coverage of the separate base stations (BS). The cells are partly overlapped and together form a network.
On the perfectly plain surface, a zone of coverage of one BS is a circle, therefore, the network made up of them has the appearance of hexagonal cells.
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The network also includes transceivers set about in space working in the same frequency range, and commuting equipment allowing to determine the current location of mobile users and provide continuity of connection when user is moving from a cell to another.
The first séance of mobile communication in the USA dates back to 1921: the police of Detroit used one-sided controller’s connection in the range of 2 Mhz for an information transfer from a central transmitter to the receivers set on cars. In 1933, the police of New York began to use the system of bilateral mobile telephone radio contact also in the range of 2 Mhz. In 1934, the US Federal Communication Commission allocated four channels in the range of 30-40 Mhz for a telephone radio contact, and by 1940, already by about 10 thousand constabulary cars were able to establish telephone radio contact. All these systems used amplitude modulation.
Frequency modulation began to be used in 1940 and had completely forced out amplitude modulation by 1946. The first public mobile phone appeared in 1946 (by Bell Telephone Laboratories), it used the range of 150 Mhz. In 1955, the 11-channel system began to work in the range of 150 Mhz, and in 1956, there was the 12-channel system.
Basic components of cellular network are cellular telephones and base stations that are usually located on the roofs of high building and towers. After activation, a cellular telephone scans a given range looking for the signal of the base station. After finding it, the telephone sends a unique identifying code to the station. A telephone and station are to support consistent radio connection, periodically sending service packages. The connection can be established using analogue protocol (AMPS, NAMPS, NMT – 450) or a digital one (DAMPS, CDMA, GSM, UMTS). If a telephone quits the base station coverage zone (or quality of radio signal gets worse), it establishes right connection with other BS (handover).
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